On our last post, we looked briefly at the actions of the scribes when they wrote their revisions of the Hebrew and Greek manuscripts around the 1st and 2nd centuries under the influence of Rabbi Akiva. His students deliberately concealed Yeshua and rewrote the Greek Septuagint for synagogue use to destroy the credibility of the Early Church. Then once it was distributed across the Roman Empire, they made sure that all synagogue copies of the Alexandrian Septuagint were burnt.
The Birth of Talmudic Rabbinical Judaism
Furthermore, Akiva was also establishing his own Hebrew text using a modern Hebrew alphabet that an everyday Jew could never understand on his/her own. As a result of this, Talmudic Rabbinical Judaism would be born. The Masoretic Text was initially based on Akiva’s work which was then revised again after 135 AD by a tiny group of Jews at Zippori. Then the Masoretes between the 6th and 10th centuries finalised the text in the form of the Leningrad Codex around 1008 AD.
The majority of today’s Bible translations use this very late MT manuscript (Leningrad Codex). However, most of the quotes from the Old Testament in our New Testament are based on the much older Alexandrian Septuagint.
- How could these Rabbinical Talmudic scribes be the divinely inspired ‘preservers’ of God’s Word?
The Latin Vulgate – 4th Century
Around 400 AD the Jewish Rabbinical authorities persuaded Jerome who was writing his last Latin Vulgate edition to use their ‘revised’ Hebrew translation.
Augustine wrote many letters to Jerome expressing concerns that he was basing his Vulgate on texts that had been corrupted. Once the new Vulgate edition was distributed, many of the Greek-speaking Christians attacked his new translation, while they continued to use the Old Latin Vulgate as it was based upon the original Greek Septuagint. 
The Old Greek translation made by the Seventy enjoys a special status not shared by its later revisions or by the translations made from it into other languages and should therefore be the translation base of the church’s OT. 
…the Jews, envying us for our translation of their Law and Prophets, have made alterations in their texts to undermine the authority of ours 
Thus, in all, from the flood to Abraham, we have 1,072 years, according to the Latin translation of the Septuagint. It is said that in the Hebrew text, however, the number of years given is far smaller—which is very difficult, if not impossible, to explain. 
Over time the use of the Septuagint as the Old Testament for the Christian Church faded away in the West. But the East has always used the Septuagint and it is still the Old Testament for the Orthodox Church today.
The Reformation – 16th Century
At the time of The Reformation, there was a resurgence of study and understanding of the Hebrew language. Martin Luther was the first to translate the Masoretic Text into German. He believed that the Alexandrian Septuagint was irrelevant to Christians, as only texts written in the ‘divine language’ – Hebrew, were the authentic, inspired words of God.
Ever since The Reformation most English translations of the Old Testament have been based on the Masoretic text. Church tradition believed the propaganda of the Talmudic Rabbis and to this day upholds the Masoretic Text as the inspired, sacred, infallible version of the Old Testament. Most of our English Bible translations, including the King James version, have been translated from it.
The Dead Sea Scrolls – 1947
In 1947 Bedouin shepherds started discovering the Essene’s Dead Sea Scrolls at Qumran.
The Essenes believed that during the 2nd Temple period the Jewish Priesthood had become corrupt, so they separated themselves from the Pharisees and Sadducees and lived in seclusion at Qumran near the Dead Sea. They held copies of the ancient Hebrew scrolls and had hidden them in caves for safekeeping during the War of the Jews between 66-73 AD. They are the oldest known copies of the Hebrew OT texts and are 1000 years older than the Hebrew Masoretic Text.
Many of the Hebrew scrolls agree with the Septuagint version of the Old Testament which proves that the Septuagint is based on a much older Hebrew text.
- So how does this all tie in with the Jews wanting to rule over the nations?
Ask of Me, and I will surely give the nations as Your inheritance, And the very ends of the earth as Your possession. ~ Psalm 2
- First, the Jews usurped the authority of the Mosaic Law. They did this by creating their own laws – the oral traditions and gave those laws authority over the Mosaic Law.
- Secondly, they usurped Yahweh’s authority over the nation of Israel.
- Now they want to steal Yeshua’s inheritance of the nations.
They believe it is their destiny to rule over the Gentile nations and believe that it is their God-given right.
This is reflected in the Talmud and Zohar which state that the Gentiles are to be the slaves of the Jews.
God has given the Jews power over the possessions and blood of all nations. Baba Kamma 37b
“The Feast of Tabernacles is the period when Israel triumphs over the other peoples of the world. That is why during this feast we seize the loulab and carry it as a trophy to show that we have conquered all other peoples, known as “populace”.”
– Zohar, Toldoth Noah 63b
“All Israelites will have a part in the future world… The Goyim, at the end of the world will be handed over to the angel Duma and sent down to hell.”
– Zohar, Shemoth, Toldoth Noah, Lekh-Lekha 
Jehovah created the non-Jew in human form so that the Jew would not have to be served by beasts. The non-Jew is consequently an animal in human form, and condemned to serve the Jew day and night. Midrasch Talpioth, p. 225-L 
This bias is also reflected in how they rewrote and added additional verses to the Masoretic Text to support the world domination of the Jews.
Here is an example …
In that day I will raise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen, and will rebuild the ruins of it, and will set up the parts thereof that have been broken down, and will build it up as in the ancient days: that the remnant of men, and all the Gentiles upon whom my name is called, may earnestly seek [me], saith the Lord who does all these things. ~ Amos 9:11-12 LXX
In that day will I raise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen, and close up the breaches thereof; and I will raise up his ruins, and I will build it as in the days of old: That they may possess the remnant of Edom, and of all the heathen, which are called by my name, saith the LORD that doeth this. ~ Amos 9:11-12 MT
- Can you see how they changed the emphasis in Amos 9:12 from the Gentiles being included in the Kingdom of God to the Jews ruling over the heathen nations? This becomes even clearer when we see in Acts 15 where James quotes Amos 9 referring to the Gentiles being included in God’s people.
The Gentile nations are Yeshua’s inheritance NOT the Jews inheritance.
After they finished speaking, James replied, “Brothers, listen to me. Simeon has related how God first visited the Gentiles, to take from them a people for his name. And with this the words of the prophets agree, just as it is written,
“‘After this I will return, and I will rebuild the tent of David that has fallen;
I will rebuild its ruins, and I will restore it, that the remnant of mankind may seek the Lord, and all the Gentiles who are called by my name, says the Lord, who makes these things known from of old.’ ~ Acts 15: 13-18
The Everlasting Israelite Kingdom
There are extra verses in Jeremiah which are NOT in the Septuagint or Dead Sea Scrolls. In particular, verses that dispensationalists use all the time claiming that God can not lie and that the Levitical priesthood has to be reinstated again during the millennium in a Jerusalem temple.
…the Levitical priests shall never lack a man before Me to offer burnt offerings, to burn grain offerings and to prepare sacrifices continually. ~ Jeremiah 33
We know that Yeshua is our High Priest and is not from the tribe of Levi, so this is an addition to the text.
- Rightly so, didn’t Jeremiah write “How can you say, ‘We are wise, And the law of the LORD is with us’? But behold, the lying pen of the scribes Has made it into a lie.” ~ Jeremiah 8:8?
The Oracles Against The Nations
They also rearranged the chapter order of Jeremiah in relation to the oracles against the nations.
- In the LXX and Dead Sea Scrolls the oracles are inserted in the middle of the book after Jeremiah 25:13 in this order:
Elam, Egypt, Babylon, Philistia, Edom, Ammon, Kedar, Damascus, Moab.
- In the MT the oracles are placed at the end of the book in this order:
Egypt, Philistia, Moab, Ammon, Edom, Damascus, Kedar, Elam, Babylon.
When placed at the end of the book, they require a new introduction, so the MT adds in 46:1 “What the word of the LORD was to Jeremiah the prophet against the nations.” 
The LXX Emphasizes Jerusalem’s Destruction While the MT Emphasizes Its Restoration
The LXX placement emphasizes Jerusalem’s destruction as compared with the northern kingdom, not to mention a greater emphasis on YHWH’s actions in judging Jerusalem.
However, the MT placement places much more emphasis on the downfall of the nations, particularly Babylon, after the destruction of Jerusalem is complete. Ending on a more triumphant note celebrating the reign of God and the eventual cessation of Israel’s sad times of trouble. 
Finally, we’ll leave you with Zechariah 14 where the LXX reads that Yeshua will fight with the Gentiles – which He did with Titus and his Roman soldiers in 70 AD. While in the MT it states that the Lord will fight against the nations.
14:2 And I will gather all the Gentiles to Jerusalem to war, and the city shall be taken, and the houses plundered, and the women ravished; and half of the city shall go forth into captivity, but the rest of my people shall not be utterly cut off from the city. 14:3 And the Lord shall go forth, and fight with those Gentiles as when he fought in the day of art. ~ LXX
14:2 For I will gather all nations against Jerusalem to battle; and the city shall be taken, and the houses rifled, and the women ravished; and half of the city shall go forth into captivity, and the residue of the people shall not be cut off from the city. 14:3 Then shall the LORD go forth, and fight against those nations, as when he fought in the day of battle. ~ MT
In closing, our understanding is that the Masoretic Text is the product of many expansions and revisions by generations of scribes. While the Alexandrian Septuagint is a better witness to the original ancient paleo-Hebrew text.
This is also the reason why the Jewish leaders refused to accept Yeshua as their Messiah. They wanted a Messiah who would overthrow all their enemies, destroy evil and establish an eternal kingdom with Israel as the supreme nation in the world.
On our next post we will look at some more examples of how the Talmudic Rabbis have rewritten the scriptures to justify their belief that the inheritance of the nations belongs to them and not Yeshua.
 Augustine, On Christian Doctrine 2.15
 Augustine, De civ. Dei, City of God, 15.11
 Augustine, De civ. Dei, City of God, 16.10
 Marvin Sweeney, Form and Intertextuality in Prophetic and Apocalyptic Literature (Tübingen: Mohr-Siebeck, 2005)